Welcome to the Forum.
Great questions and probably no easy answers. As a minimum, I think you need to declare your tax home as the residence in the Philippines. I would engage a CPA back home to validate how to best avoid the penalties.
Here is some reading that may or may not answer your questions;
Questions and Answers on the Individual Shared Responsibility Provision
ACA – Obamacare’s Effects on American Expats Living Abroad | Surviving Yucatan
I have been working abroad for the last seven years and the first year is always tough getting the tax year aligned with the 330 day requirement (which is why I am referring you to find a CPA that could explain it better).
Most likely nothing will be published until Feb 1 (after the W2 publishing deadline). That has been my experience with using TurboTax.