The French consulates have a reputation for being somewhat less than "user friendly."
Basically what you need is a certified copy of your marriage license. What that means exactly can vary from country to country, but in most cases it should work if you get an apostille'd copy of your marriage license/certificate.
You need to take this, along with all your identity documents (national i.d., passport, etc.) and possibly a translation of the marriage certificate to the French consulate where you currently are living. The one big catch is that your husband will need to show his French carte d'identité. If he hasn't kept that up to date, he'll need to first go through the process to renew it. (Which involves producing his birth certificate and other paperwork to prove he really is French.)
Once the consulate have all this paperwork, it will take a while for them to issue the livret de famille because they have to send all the information back to France and get your husband's birth record updated to reflect the marriage.