Chances are you'll be allowed back in - however you'll be admitted as a "tourist" on a Schengen 90 day visa, or so I suspect.
A visa only allows you to enter France. It's the residence permit (i.e. titre de séjour) that allows you to stay and take up residence here. Generally speaking, once you file your papers with the OFII, you get an appointment (depending on the type of visa - student, visitor, vie privée et familiale, etc.) and if you miss that appointment, they'll give you one more chance to reschedule. At that point, they figure you've lost interest.
You may want to check with the Consulate, but I suspect you may need to re-apply for a visa if you are intending on taking up residence in France at this point.